Pre-Confederation Treaties

Pre-Confederation Treaties2019-08-21T15:04:08+00:00

Gunshot Treaty

The Gunshot Treaty was made in a series of Councils, first in 1787 with Sir John Johnson and in 1788 with Lt. Colonel John Butler and then confirmed with Lt. Governor Simcoe between the Chippewas of Lake Huron and Lake Simcoe and the Mississaugas of Rice Lake, Mud Lake and Scugog, circa 1794-1795. This treaty concerned lands along the shore of Lake Ontario west of the Crawford Purchase and south of Lake Simcoe.

Crawford Purchase

The Crawford Purchase is a treaty consisting of two agreements made over 1783-1784 between the Crown and the Mississauga of the Bay of Quinte and the Mississauga of Kingston for an area of land on the mainland along Lake Ontario, and the St. Lawrence River, including Prince Edward County, bounded to the west by the Trent River, and to the east by Jones Creek near Brockville.

Treaty No. 5 Penetanguishene

The Penetanguishene Treaty, registered as Crown Treaty No. 5, was completed in two steps. The Provisional Agreement was signed on 19 May 1795 and the Final Agreement was confirmed on 22 May 1798 between the Chippewas of Lake Huron and Simcoe and the Crown. The treaty concerned lands in and around the harbour at Penetanguishene.

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Treaty No. 16 Lake Simcoe

The Lake Simcoe–Lake Huron Purchase, registered as Crown Treaty No. 16, was completed in two steps. The Provisional Agreement was executed on 8 June 1811 and the Final Agreement was entered into on November 17-18, 1815, between the Chippewas of Lake Huron and Simcoe and the Crown. The treaty concerned lands lying between Kempenfelt Bay and Georgian Bay.

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Treaty No. 18 Lake Simcoe – Nottawasaga

The Provisional Agreement of the Lake Simcoe – Nottawasaga Treaty, registered as Crown Treaty No. 18, was entered into on October 17, 1818. There is no record of a confirmatory surrender deed. The Provisional Agreement is considered the official treaty text by the Crown, as published in Canada’s Indian Treaties and Surrenders. The Provisional Agreement was made between the Chippewas of Lake Huron and Simcoe and the Government of Upper Canada. The treaty concerned lands lying between Nottawasaga Bay east to Lake Simcoe and south to (then) West York County.

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Treaty No. 20 Rice Lake

The Provisional Agreement of the Rice Lake Treaty, registered as Crown Treaty No. 20, was entered into on November 5, 1818. The Provisional Agreement was made between the Mississaugas of Rice Lake, Mud Lake and Balsam Lake and the Government of Upper Canada for lands extending from Rice Lake on the east to Lake Simcoe on the west and the northern boundary of the Gunshot Treaty on the South to the 45th parallel.

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Treaty No. 27 Alderville

Articles of a Provisional Agreement entered into on May 31, 1819, between John Ferguson, of Kingston, in the County of Frontenac and Province of Upper Canada, acting on the part and behalf of His Majesty of the one part, and Nawacamigo, Anteniwayway, Kabiatsi-waybigehe, Wabukeek, Shiwitagan, Kotouche, Nawakeshecom, Shawondais, Kiwaishe, Nibinowinin, Kakekijick, Pape-woun, Wobekenense, Nagonseway, Ketchegam, Kamanyouweney, Shebeshe, Nakawagan, Wobasek, Principal Men of the Mississauga Nation of Indians inhabiting the tract of land here in after mentioned and described, of the other part.

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Treaty No. 27 1/4 Rideau Purchase

The Provisional Agreement of the Rideau Purchase, registered as Treaty No.27-27 ¼, was entered into on May 31, 1819 and the Confirmatory Indenture was dated November 28, 1822. The Provisional Agreement was made between the Mississaugas of Kingston and the Bay of Quinte and the Government of Upper Canada for lands extending from the boundary of Treaty No.20 northward to the Ottawa River.

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Disclaimer

Please note that this page provides preliminary information on pre-confederation treaties between the ancestors of the Williams Treaties First Nations and the Crown. The extant historical record for each pre-confederation treaty varies. The information provided in this webpage is for information purposes only and does not constitute an admission by the Williams Treaties First Nations of any sort and does not limit the Williams Treaties First Nations’ rights in any way.